Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition in which a person has trouble paying attention and focusing on tasks, tends to act without thinking, and has trouble sitting still. It may begin in early childhood and can continue into adulthood. Without treatment, ADHD can cause problems at home, school, work, and with relationships. In the past, ADHD was called attention deficit disorder (ADD).
The exact cause is not clear, but ADHD tends to run in families.
The three types of ADHD symptoms include:
ADHD is often diagnosed when a child is between 6 and 12 years old. Teachers may notice symptoms in children who are in this age group.
First, the child will have a physical exam to make sure that he or she does not have other problems such as learning disabilities, depression, or anxiety disorder. The doctor will use guidelines from the Canadian Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Resource Alliance (CADDRA) to diagnose ADHD. The doctor may also look at written reports about the child’s behaviour. Parents, teachers, and others who have regular contact with the child prepare these reports.
There is no cure for ADHD, but treatment may help control the symptoms. Treatment may include medicines and behaviour therapy. Parents and other adults need to closely watch children after they begin to take medicines for ADHD. The medicines may cause side effects such as loss of appetite, headaches or stomachaches, tics or twitches, and problems sleeping. Side effects usually get better after a few weeks. If they don't, the doctor can lower the dose.
Therapy focuses on making changes in the environment to improve the child’s behaviour. Often, counselling and extra support at home and at school help children succeed at school and feel better about themselves.
Many adults don't realize that they have ADHD until their children are diagnosed. Then they begin to notice their own symptoms. Adults with ADHD may find it hard to focus, organize, and finish tasks. They often forget things. But they also often are very creative and curious. They love to ask questions and keep learning. Some adults with ADHD learn to manage their lives and find careers that let them use those strengths.
But many adults have trouble at home and work. As a group, adults with ADHD have higher divorce rates. They also are more likely to smoke and have more substance abuse problems than adults without ADHD. Fewer adults with ADHD enter university, and fewer graduate. Treatment with medicine, counselling, and behaviour therapy can help adults with ADHD.
Frequently Asked Questions
Learning about ADHD:
Living with ADHD:
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The exact cause of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not known. But inherited genetic factors are likely responsible. Ongoing research is focused on identifying genes that cause a person to be susceptible to ADHD.
Using various imaging tests, researchers have been able to observe the brain at work. They have found a possible link between ADHD and:
A mother's use of cigarettes, alcohol, or other drugs during pregnancy may increase the risk for ADHD. Also, exposure to lead may cause symptoms associated with ADHD.1
Although many parents believe that foods with sugar and food additives make their children more hyperactive, these foods have not been shown to cause ADHD.2
A study by the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health found that certain parts of the brains of children with ADHD develop normally but about 3 years later than in children without ADHD.3 This may be why some children seem to grow out of the disorder.
Some people have misconceptions about ADHD, such as that children with ADHD are lazy or dumb. Talk with a doctor about questions or concerns you have about these issues.
The symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may include:
These symptoms affect people in all age groups who have ADHD. But typical behaviour varies by age.
There are several other conditions with symptoms similar to ADHD. For example, sometimes bipolar disorder and ADHD can be confused. It can be hard to know whether symptoms are caused by ADHD, another condition, or both.
Normally, children 3 to 4 years of age are often inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive—all the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Differentiating between what is normal for the age and what may be caused by ADHD can be difficult in children this young.
ADHD is most often diagnosed in children between ages 6 and 12. After a child starts school, the symptoms of ADHD become more noticeable. During this period, ADHD can disrupt many aspects of a child's life. Learning and academic performance, adjusting to change, sleeping, and getting along with others are all potential problem areas.
Symptoms of ADHD usually remain the same through early adolescence. Approximately 60% to 85% of children with ADHD continue to have symptoms into the teen years.4 Children with ADHD are often described as less mature than their peers and may lag behind in reaching milestones typical for the age group.
But some symptoms typically improve or become less obvious. For example, someone who had very disruptive hyperactive behaviour during elementary school may only fidget or feel restless in high school.
Teens with ADHD have more problems when they are driving cars. They get more speeding tickets and have serious car accidents more often. They should be monitored closely by a licensed adult when they are learning to drive.
Symptoms of ADHD can last into adulthood and include difficulty focusing, organizing, and finishing tasks. But adults often are able to adjust in the workplace better than they did in the classroom as children.
Many adults do not realize that they have ADHD until their children are diagnosed and they begin to recognize their own symptoms. Some adults with ADHD learn to manage their lives and find careers in which they can use their strengths—intellectual curiosity and creativity—to their advantage. But many adults have difficulties at home and work. As a group, adults with ADHD have higher divorce rates, are more likely to smoke, and have more substance abuse problems than adults who do not have ADHD. Also compared with their peers, fewer enter university and fewer graduate. Treatment with medicine, counselling, and behaviour therapies can be helpful.
Raising a child who has ADHD can be a challenge. Parents must consistently monitor their child and respond to problem behaviour appropriately. If other issues are causing stress within a family (such as divorce, violence, or drug or alcohol abuse), it may be even more difficult to deal with a child who has ADHD.
Treatment for ADHD can help control symptoms, allowing a child to grow and develop normally. Treatment also can decrease the frustration, discouragement, and failure that many people with ADHD experience throughout their lives.
So far, it appears that the greatest risk factor for developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is having an inherited tendency for the condition.
Environmental factors, such as certain parenting methods, may influence how symptoms of ADHD are expressed, but these do not cause ADHD.
A stressful family situation may contribute to a child's symptoms. A child may feel guilty because of his or her symptoms and the problems they cause, which can increase the risk of developing another condition, such as anxiety, along with ADHD.
Call a doctor if:
For young children who show signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, watchful waiting is appropriate. It is difficult to diagnose ADHD in children younger than age 5. Young children generally have short attention spans, and their normal range of behaviour includes periods of high activity and impulsivity. If you notice any ADHD symptoms in your preschooler that do not seem age-appropriate, work with your child to improve behaviour. Keep a record of your child's behaviour for 6 months to see if it improves. If it continues or has consequences, such as being expelled from daycare or preschool, talk with your doctor about having your child evaluated.
Watchful waiting is not appropriate for school-age children and teens with ADHD symptoms. Children need attention from a doctor if they have behaviour problems that occur in more than one setting, such as poor relationships with parents and poor academic performance.
Problems caused by inattention may not become significant until the teen years, when greater self-reliance is expected. A change in school (such as advancing to junior high or high school) or a new environment (such as moving to another city) can trigger problems with inattention. If you think your child may have an inattention problem, see a doctor to find out if ADHD is the cause.
Watchful waiting may not be appropriate if you are an adult and think that you may have ADHD. Consider how long you have experienced symptoms, and think about any major changes or difficult situations that are affecting your life. Your symptoms may improve when you have addressed and worked on those issues. But talk to a doctor if your symptoms concern you. If you have other symptoms, such as depression or anxiety, a doctor can help diagnose and treat your problems.
You may also be referred to health professionals who do not prescribe medicine but provide behaviour therapy or family counselling. These health professionals include:
Ask your doctor about his or her training and experience related to ADHD. Diagnosing and treating ADHD requires an ability to identify and distinguish behaviours that can be subtle and complicated. Also, make sure your doctor has enough time to evaluate you or your child. Accurate diagnosis and successful treatment of ADHD takes repeated office visits and observations. It is also necessary that your doctor be able to coordinate between other health professionals, family members, teachers, and caregivers.
To prepare for your appointment, see the topic Making the Most of Your Appointment.
Also, some people are diagnosed with "ADHD, not otherwise specified" when symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity are present but do not fit into one of the three types.
A doctor will use criteria for diagnosing attention deficit hyperactivity disorders to determine whether a child has ADHD. Information used to diagnose the condition includes:
It can be hard to determine whether a child's behaviour problems are caused by ADHD, other conditions with similar symptoms, or a combination of ADHD and another condition. Several verbal and written tests for associated disorders are used to help with this determination.
Also, children with ADHD may have difficulty learning to read, write, or do math problems. Testing for learning disabilities will help teachers develop the best educational plan for a child with these difficulties.
Other tests may be done to identify other medical problems that might explain the child's symptoms, such as:
Parents often question whether ADHD is overdiagnosed. Many doctors and researchers believe that the increase in ADHD diagnoses results from improved detection techniques, especially the standardization of assessment criteria. Current and future research may help answer this question.
Many adults with ADHD have never been diagnosed or treated. ADHD is a lifelong condition that, left untreated, can lead to low self-esteem, frustration, school or job failure, drug abuse, and depression. To diagnose ADHD in an adult, a doctor may use the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale. This test asks questions about childhood difficulties that are often seen with ADHD. The doctor then uses the answers to help see if the adult had ADHD symptoms as a child and if the symptoms were severe.
Adults with untreated ADHD are at an increased risk of abusing drugs or alcohol. If an adult is suspected of having or is diagnosed with ADHD, he or she may also be screened for alcohol and drug abuse.
The Canadian Paediatric Society recommends that doctors ask parents about behaviour and school performance during regularly scheduled well-child visits. This helps identify early signs of ADHD. If you are concerned about how your child's temperament, learning skills, or behaviour is developing, talk with your doctor during your next visit.
Before meeting with your doctor, think about at what age your child's symptoms began. Also, you and other caregivers should record when the behaviour occurs and how long it lasts. An important component of evaluation for ADHD is considering the kinds of problems that result from the behaviours and to what extent they affect academic performance and social behaviour.
Some adults do not recognize their own symptoms of ADHD until their child is diagnosed with the condition. If your child is diagnosed with ADHD or you think you have symptoms, talk with your doctor about being screened for ADHD.
Successful treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) begins with an accurate diagnosis and understanding of a child's weaknesses and strengths. Learning about ADHD will help you and your child's siblings better understand how to help your child.
The Canadian ADHD Resource Alliance (CADDRA) guidelines recommend medicine and/or behaviour therapy to treat children with ADHD.6
Your child's doctor may recommend that your child take a stimulant medicine, such as amphetamine (for example, Dexedrine, Adderall XR) or methylphenidate (for example, Ritalin, Concerta, Biphentin). These medicines improve symptoms in about 70% of children who have the condition.1
Although it may seem contradictory, stimulants usually decrease hyperactivity and impulsivity and improve focus. Some parents worry about their children becoming addicted to stimulants. Research has shown that these medicines, when taken correctly, do not cause dependence. But parents should closely supervise the use of ADHD medicines, because abuse by siblings, classmates, and adults has been reported.
Parents are also often concerned about medicine side effects, including loss of appetite, nervousness, tics or twitches, and problems sleeping. Children should be closely monitored after they start medicines, to assess whether they are receiving the correct dose. These side effects usually decrease after a few weeks on the medicines, or the dosage can be lowered to offset side effects. For more information, see:
Atomoxetine (Strattera) is a non-stimulant medicine that may be prescribed if stimulant medicines are not effective or have bothersome side effects. Strattera is not a controlled drug, which means refills on prescriptions and telephone prescriptions are allowed.
The CADDRA guidelines also encourage behaviour therapy.6 Through behaviour therapy, parents learn strategies, such as positive reinforcement, to improve a child's behaviours. Children learn to develop problem solving, communication, and self-advocacy skills. Behaviour therapy is more helpful when used with medicine than it is when used by itself.
Counselling may help children and adults with ADHD recognize problem behaviours and learn ways to deal with them. For both parents and children, counselling can be a place to air frustrations and deal with stress.
Elementary school teachers are often the first to recognize ADHD symptoms, because in the classroom more demands are placed on children to sit still, pay attention, listen, and follow class rules. Many times teachers recommend to parents that a child be tested or see a doctor.
Some children with ADHD qualify for educational services within the public schools. If your child qualifies, you will meet with school personnel to identify goals and establish an individualized education program (IEP). IEPs are based on the evaluation of a child's disability and his or her specific needs. This usually means your school will try to accommodate your child's extra needs, which may be as minor as placing him or her at the front of the class or as involved as providing classroom staff to assist your child.
Your doctor will talk with you about setting realistic and measurable goals for your child's behaviour at school and at home. Each child must be considered individually, taking into account his or her specific problems and needs.
If your child is preschool age, your doctor may encourage behaviour therapy in an effort to curb symptoms and avoid using medicine at an early age. But if behaviour therapy is not effective in controlling symptoms, some doctors recommend medicines. Studies have shown that the stimulant medicine methylphenidate (such as Ritalin) is safe and effective for preschool-age children.7
Stimulant medicines may be related to slower growth in children, especially in the first year of taking the medicine. But most children seem to catch up in height and weight by the time they are adults. Your child's doctor will keep track of your child's growth and watch for problems.1
Regular communication among parents, teachers, and doctors benefits a child who has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Teens will benefit from continuing to take a stimulant medicine—such as amphetamine (for example, Dexedrine, Adderall XR) or methylphenidate (for example, Ritalin, Concerta, Biphentin)—or non-stimulant atomoxetine (Strattera) if either type of medicine has been helpful in the past.
Parents can also be reassured that taking stimulant medicine for ADHD does not increase the risk for substance abuse later. In fact, some studies have found less alcohol and drug abuse in children and teens with ADHD who had taken stimulant medicines than in those who did not receive medicine.8 For more information, see:
Staying closely involved with your teen and continuing behaviour therapy takes a lot of hard work but may pay off in the long run. The teen years present many challenges, including increased schoolwork and the need to be more attentive and organized. Making good decisions becomes especially important during these years when peer pressure, emerging sexuality, and other issues surface. Use consequences that are meaningful to your teenager, such as losing privileges or having increased chore assignments. Parents and teens can work together to establish reasonable, obtainable goals and negotiate appropriate rewards when those goals are met.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often goes undiagnosed in adults. The right treatment can help those who have struggled with the condition for years. Like children with ADHD, adults may benefit from medicine combined with psychological support, including education about the disorder, support groups and/or counselling, and skills training. Skills training can include time management, organizational techniques, and academic and vocational counselling.
Studies have found that about 58% of adults who have ADHD report a better ability to focus and less hyperactivity and impulsivity when they take stimulant medicines.9 If stimulant medicines have bothersome side effects or are not effective, your doctor might recommend atomoxetine (Strattera), a non-stimulant medicine. Strattera is not a controlled drug, which means refills and telephone prescriptions are allowed.
Certain antidepressants, such as bupropion (for instance, Wellbutrin) or tricyclics (for example, imipramine, nortriptyline, desipramine), are sometimes also recommended for adults who have ADHD.
There are several myths that can interfere with a realistic perception of ADHD. It is important to understand that ADHD is a medical condition that cannot be consistently controlled without treatment. Help your child with ADHD to learn about the condition and the importance of following treatment plans. Your child is more likely to successfully control symptoms when he or she actively participates in treatment, such as taking medicines on time.
Some people use treatment methods that have not been proved helpful, such as diet restrictions. Do not substitute these practices for conventional medical treatment. Some treatments are potentially physically and emotionally harmful or are unproved. Using them not only can be dangerous but may also prevent you from using proven methods of treatment. Talk with a doctor about the concerns or questions you or your child has about ADHD or its treatment.
There is no known way to prevent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Avoiding alcohol, drugs, and smoking during pregnancy may help prevent a child from developing behaviour similar to ADHD as well as many other health problems.
Although you cannot prevent ADHD, you can help your child have fewer learning and attention problems by:
Also, nurturing techniques that begin at birth and continue throughout childhood will help your child reach his or her potential regardless of whether ADHD is a concern.
Many home treatment methods can help reduce your child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The approaches differ for children and adults. But treatment for all ages emphasizes understanding the condition, creating a daily structure, and using support systems.
When your child has ADHD, work together to improve behaviour and functioning at home and school. Also, it is important for you to know that helping yourself will also help your child.
Most often, stimulant medicines are used to treat ADHD. These medicines are effective for people of all ages, although more research is needed on how adults respond. In general, stimulant medicines improve symptoms in about 70% of people who have ADHD.1 There are often quick and dramatic improvements in behaviour.
Other types of medicines may be used to treat ADHD.
Medicine may be needed to treat other mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, that often occur along with ADHD.
If you are giving your child medicine for ADHD, be sure that it is taken consistently. Also, you will need to regularly monitor the effects of the medicine and communicate closely with your child's doctor.
For more information, see:
The following medicines are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD):
Advisories. Health Canada and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have issued:
Health Canada and the FDA do not recommend that people stop using these medicines. Instead, a person taking these medicines should be watched for warning signs of suicide.
All medicines approved for the treatment of ADHD come with a warning about possible heart-related or mental health problems. Before starting a medicine for ADHD, tell your doctor if you or your child has any heart problems, heart defects, or mental health problems.
The FDA has issued an advisory about Strattera and the risks of liver injury, orthostatic hypotension, and syncope. Call your doctor if you have nausea or belly pain. Also, call your doctor if you feel dizzy or light-headed or if your skin is yellowing.
All of a child's behaviour problems may not be controlled by medicine for ADHD. The child may still have a higher level of some behaviour problems than other children the same age. Also, it has not been proved that medicine improves the long-term educational, occupational, and social functioning of a person who has ADHD.
New longer-acting medicines allow many people to take one pill a day for their ADHD symptoms, avoiding the multiple dosages that were standard in the past.
Stimulant medicines may be related to slower growth in children, especially in the first year of taking the medicine. But most children seem to catch up in height and weight by the time they are adults. Your doctor will keep track of your child's growth and watch for problems.1 As with any medicine, parents should think about not only the benefits of these medicines but also the potential risks.
Most medicines to treat ADHD are approved by Health Canada for children age 6 and older. There are few studies on the use of ADHD medicine for children age 5 and younger. Most doctors do not prescribe medicines for a child who has ADHD symptoms until he or she starts school. Younger children are more likely to have side effects from medicines. But they may be prescribed for younger children when symptoms severely affect a child's behaviour and quality of life.
Some medicines used to treat ADHD (such as stimulants) can be abused. Make sure your child knows not to sell or give medicine to other people. An adult should supervise the medicine.
There is no surgical treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Other methods of treatment that may be used for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder include behaviour management, social skills training, and counselling.
Treatment for ADHD is based on your or your child's symptoms and problem behaviours. Medicine is the most effective treatment for the major ADHD symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Other treatment is sometimes recommended if:
Behavioural interventions help train parents, teachers, and other adults responsible for a child with ADHD. Programs emphasize the need to establish routines and rules for behaviour and to closely monitor how a child responds. The adult consistently delivers rewards or consequences depending upon how the child complies with the rules. This type of treatment has been shown to be more effective than cognitive-behavioural therapy techniques. Cognitive-based therapies depend more upon the child to self-direct behavioural changes. A child with ADHD is not likely to have the skills to change his or her behaviour without help and guidance from adults.
Behavioural interventions most often used to help treat ADHD in a child include:
Behavioural intervention for adults focuses on assistance with organizational skills and healthy relationships.
Complementary and alternative medicine is used by some therapists or others who do not operate within mainstream medical practice. But none of these complementary therapies have been shown through clinical research to be effective in treating ADHD and should not replace proven conventional methods. More research is needed before any can be recommended as primary treatment for ADHD. But a person with ADHD may benefit from safe, non-traditional therapies used in addition to conventional medical treatment. For example, acupuncture or biofeedback may help relieve stress and muscle tension and improve a person's overall well-being and quality of life.
If you are thinking about using complementary and alternative medicine to help treat ADHD, be open with your doctor about the subject. He or she can help direct you to treatments that are safe to use in combination with proven techniques. Only those treatments that best help control ADHD symptoms without causing physical or emotional harm should be used.
Overall, medicines are the most effective treatment for ADHD, although individuals vary in their response to medicine. Behavioural training, training and education for parents, and counselling are sometimes used as the primary treatment for mild symptoms. Usually, these methods are used in addition to medicine for people with moderate to severe symptoms.
Parents may understandably be reluctant to give their child medicine. But studies show that for short-term use, these medicines are safe and can positively affect behaviour and improve the quality of life for people with ADHD and for their families. It is important to talk openly with your doctor about any concerns in order to best understand and treat ADHD.
|Canadian Paediatric Society|
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|Ottawa, ON K1G 4J8|
The Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) promotes quality health care for Canadian children and establishes guidelines for paediatric care. The organization offers educational materials on a variety of topics, including information on immunizations, pregnancy, safety issues, and teen health.
|Centre for ADHD Advocacy Canada (CADDAC)|
|40 Wynford Drive|
|Toronto, ON M3C 1J5|
The Centre for ADHD Advocacy Canada is a national organization providing leadership in education and advocacy for individuals and organizations across Canada. In addition to providing basic information on what ADHD is and how it is treated, CADDAC also offers specific information to parents on how to advocate for children in the school system and obtain possible accommodations. The Web site also provides specially geared information on ADHD for children and teens and links to local, provincial, and national resources throughout Canada.
- Greenhill LL, Hechtman LI (2009). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In BJ Sadock et al., eds., Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 9th ed., vol. 2, pp. 3560–3572. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
- National Institute of Mental Health (2008). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (NIH Publication No. 08-3572). Available online: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/adhd_booklet.pdf.
- Shaw P, et al. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(49): 19649–19654.
- American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2007). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(7): 894–921.
- American Psychiatric Association (2000). Attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders. In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text rev., pp. 85–103. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
- Canadian ADHD Resource Alliance (2008). Canadian ADHD Practice Guidelines. Available online: http://www.caddra.ca/cms4/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=26&Itemid=70&lang=en.
- Vitiello B, et al. (2007). Effectiveness of methylphenidate in the 10-month continuation phase of the preschoolers with ADHD treatment study (PATS). Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 17(5): 593–603.
- Upadhyaya HP (2008). Substance use disorders in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Implications for treatment and the role of the primary care physician. Primary Care Companion Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 10(3): 211–221.
- Weiss M, Murray C (2003). Assessment and management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 168(6): 715–722.
Other Works Consulted
- Dulcan MK, et al. (2003). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder section of Axis 1 disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence: Attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders. Concise Guide to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 3rd ed., pp. 24–41. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
- Greenhill LL, Hechtman LI (2009). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In BJ Sadock et al., eds., Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 9th ed., vol. 2, pp. 3560–3572. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
- Keen D, Hadjikoumi I (2008). ADHD in children and adolescents, search date June 2007. Online version of BMJ Clinical Evidence. Also available online: http://www.clinicalevidence.com.
- McGough JJ (2005). Adult manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder section of Attention-deficit disorders. In BJ Sadock, VA Sadock, eds., Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 8th ed., vol. 2, pp. 3198–3204. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
- Rappley MD (2005). Clinical practice: Attention deficit—hyperactivity disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 352(2): 165–173.
- Sadock BJ, et al. ( 2007). Attention-deficit disorders. In Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry, Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry, 10th ed., pp. 1206–1217. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
- Stubbe D (2007). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, pp. 57–68. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
- Wilens TE, et al. (2004). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults. JAMA, 292(5): 619–623.
|Primary Medical Reviewer||John Pope, MD - Pediatrics|
|Specialist Medical Reviewer||Thomas Emmett Francoeur, MD, MDCM, CSPQ, FRCPC - Pediatrics|
|Last Revised||June 10, 2010|
Last Revised: April 10, 2012
Author: Healthwise Staff
This information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise, Incorporated disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information.