Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Topic Overview

What is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of a woman’s reproductive organs. See a picture of the organs inside the pelvis.

Treating PID right away is important, because PID can cause scar tissue in the pelvic organs and lead to infertility. It can also lead to other problems, such as pelvic pain and tubal (ectopic) pregnancy.

What causes PID?

PID is caused by bacteria entering the reproductive organs through the cervix. When the cervix is infected, bacteria from the vagina can more easily get into and infect the uterus and fallopian tubes.

You may be more likely to get PID if you:

  • Have a sexually transmitted infection (STI). The most common causes of PID are gonorrhea and chlamydia.
  • Are at risk for STIs. You are at higher risk for STIs if you are young and you don't use condoms when you have sex. Having more than one sex partner also increases your risk for STIs.
  • Have bacterial vaginosis, which is not an STI.
  • Douche.
  • Have recently had an IUD inserted or had an abortion.
  • Had PID before.

What are the symptoms?

At first, PID may not cause any symptoms or may cause only mild symptoms, such as bleeding or discharge from the vagina. Some women don't even know they have it. They only find out later, when they can't get pregnant or they have pelvic pain.

As the infection spreads, the most common symptom is pain in the lower belly. The pain has been described as crampy or as a dull and constant ache. It may be worse during sex, bowel movements, or when you urinate. Some women also have a fever.

How is PID diagnosed?

Even though PID causes mild or no symptoms, it can still cause serious problems. So you need to understand what puts you at risk for PID or STIs and see your doctor if you have any unusual symptoms.

Your doctor will ask about your lifestyle and symptoms. He or she will examine you and do tests to see if you have PID. The test results may take some time. For this reason, your doctor will treat you for the disease before the test results are ready. Treating PID early is important to prevent problems later on.

Your doctor may test you for the most common causes of PID and may also do blood tests to look for signs of infection. Your doctor may also order an ultrasound to see if there are other possible causes of your symptoms. An ultrasound may also show if there is damage to the fallopian tubes, uterus, or ovaries from PID.

How is it treated?

To treat PID, you will need to take antibiotics. Take them as directed. If you don't take all of the medicine, the infection may come back.

If your infection was caused by an STI, your sex partner(s) will also need to be treated so you don't get infected again. Do not have sex until both of you have finished your medicine, and be sure to follow up with your doctor to make certain that the treatment is working.

If you have a very bad case of PID or are pregnant and infected, you may need to stay in the hospital and get antibiotics through a vein (intravenous). Sometimes surgery is needed to drain a pocket of infection, called an abscess.

Can you prevent PID?

Your risk of infertility increases each time you have PID, so it is very important to prevent future infections. Using a condom each time you have sex can reduce your chance of getting an STI that could lead to PID.

Frequently Asked Questions

Learning about pelvic inflammatory disease (PID):

Being diagnosed:

Getting treatment:

Ongoing concerns:


PID, sexually transmitted infection (STI), and bacterial vaginosis

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is usually caused by a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that infects the cervix, which connects the upper vagina to the uterus. When the cervix is infected with an STI, it becomes easier for other bacteria present in the vagina to get into and infect the uterus and fallopian tubes. PID can also develop as a result of bacterial vaginosis (BV), which is a drop in the vagina's "good" organisms and an increase in its potentially "bad" organisms. When this happens and the problem organisms spread into the uterus and fallopian tubes, PID can result. (BV is not sexually transmitted.) See a picture of the female pelvic organs.

The most common causes of PID are:

  • Gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted bacterial infection.
  • Chlamydia, a sexually transmitted bacterial infection. PID caused by chlamydia is most common among teenagers and young adult women.

PID caused by chlamydia may have milder symptoms or no symptoms (compared with PID caused by gonorrhea), which can delay diagnosis.

Practicing safe sex by using condoms prevents STIs. This greatly lowers PID risk. For more information, see the Prevention section of this topic.

For more information, see the topics Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Bacterial Vaginosis.

PID and intrauterine devices (IUDs)

Women who have an intrauterine device (IUD) inserted for birth control have a higher risk of getting PID in the first month after insertion, especially if bacterial vaginosis or an STI is present at the cervix at the time of insertion. The insertion procedure may transfer bacteria from the vagina or cervix to the uterus. Your risk of infection can be reduced if:

  • You are tested and treated for STIs and bacterial vaginosis (if detected) before IUD insertion.
  • The insertion is done carefully to minimize the chance of infection (clean technique).

PID that spreads to abdominal organs

PID can spread to other abdominal organs, either from the pelvic organs through the lymphatic system or from the far ends of the fallopian tubes. This may be more common in women who have just:

  • Given birth.
  • Had uterine tests or other procedures, such as:
  • Had an abortion.


Symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) range from none at all to severe.

It's common to think that PID symptoms are a sign of something less serious. Many women who have pelvic organ damage caused by PID report that they've never been diagnosed with PID. This is particularly true of PID that is caused by chlamydia, which may cause no symptoms.

PID symptoms often do not appear until infection and inflammation have spread to the fallopian tubes or the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum). Symptoms of PID tend to be more noticeable during menstrual bleeding and sometimes in the week following.

The main symptom of PID is lower abdominal pain, usually described as crampy or as constant and dull. This pain may get worse during bowel movements, sexual intercourse, or urination. You may also have one or more other symptoms, including:

  • A sense of pressure in the pelvis.
  • Low back pain. Sometimes this pain spreads down one or both legs.
  • Abnormal discharge—such as yellow-, brown-, or green-coloured discharge—or an increased amount of discharge from the vagina.
  • Fever [usually over 38.3°C (101°F)]. But you can have PID without fever.
  • A vague feeling of body weakness or discomfort (malaise).
  • Headache.
  • Nausea or vomiting.
  • Pain during sex (dyspareunia).
  • Irregular menstrual bleeding.
  • Urinary symptoms, such as burning or pain with urination.

Be sure to see your doctor when you have any of the above symptoms, because PID and several other conditions with similar symptoms require prompt treatment.

What Happens

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) usually starts with a bacterial infection and inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis). This is usually caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia. PID is also linked to an imbalance of the organisms normally found in the vagina (bacterial vaginosis). The bacteria then spread to other female reproductive organs.

Sometimes PID starts after bacteria are carried beyond the cervix by an invasive procedure. This could be the insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD), a dilation and curettage (D&C), an induced abortion, or a hysterosalpingogram test (which uses a tube to inject dye through the cervix into the uterus and fallopian tubes for X-ray imaging).

In some cases, infection moves into a fallopian tube and ovary. This can form a pocket of pus called a tubo-ovarian abscess. After having this problem, as many as 93% of women cannot become pregnant.1

PID causes inflammation in the uterus and fallopian tubes. In turn, the inflammation can form scar tissue (adhesions) in the abdominal cavity and the reproductive organs. This does not always cause symptoms. The scar tissue can lead to:

  • Infertility. Scarring inside the fallopian tubes is permanent and can twist or block the tubes with scar tissue or fluid, leading to tubal infertility. About 1 out of 10 women cannot become pregnant after having PID once. After having PID three or more times, as many as 7 out of 10 women become infertile.1
  • Chronic pelvic pain, affecting nearly 2 out of 10 women who have had PID.2 Chronic (ongoing) pelvic pain is usually caused by internal scarring (adhesions) and is difficult to treat. For more information, see the topic Chronic Female Pelvic Pain.
  • Tubal (ectopic) pregnancy. About 1 out of 10 pregnancies that follow PID are in a fallopian tube.2 Scar tissue can trap a fertilized egg in a fallopian tube, where it begins to grow. This can become a life-threatening problem. It must be treated right away with medicine or surgery to end the pregnancy.

PID may also occur inside the abdomen as:

  • A pocket of pus (abscess) in the pelvis.
  • An infection and inflammation of the lower abdomen (pelvic peritonitis).
  • Inflammation around the outside of the liver (perihepatitis).

The longer PID treatment is delayed, the more likely you are to have permanent damage. Similarly, each recurrent pelvic infection increases your risks of tubal infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and ectopic pregnancy.

What Increases Your Risk

You have an increased risk for developing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) if you:

  • Are at risk for getting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Sexually active teens and young women have the highest rate of STIs. This is almost always from having sex without using a condom. The cells of the transformation zone in a younger woman's cervix are most likely to be infected with chlamydia and gonorrhea, two common STIs.
  • Have had PID before. If you have had PID once, your reproductive tract may be less able to clear a new infection because of scar tissue from past PID.
  • Have had chlamydia before, which can lead to a "hypersensitive response" when you are exposed to the bacteria again. A second infection can cause more irritation and pelvic organ damage that is worse than the first time.
  • Douche. Doctors advise against douching because it increases your risk for vaginal and pelvic infections.
    • Douching may change the acidity of the vagina. This can help more "bad" bacteria grow, while killing off "good" bacteria, such as lactobacilli.
    • Douching done incorrectly may flush bacteria from the vagina into the uterus.

Use condoms to avoid exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Some gynecological procedures can increase your risk of PID by introducing bacteria into the reproductive tract. Such medical procedures include:

PID is rare in women who are not sexually active, don't have menstrual periods, are pregnant, or have had their uterus or ovaries removed during a hysterectomy.

When To Call a Doctor

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) symptoms often don't develop until inflammation or scar tissue (adhesions) develop. Scar tissue can cause ongoing (chronic) pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. For this reason, immediate medical attention is necessary to treat possible PID symptoms or complications.

Call your doctor immediately if you have abdominal pain and any of the following:

  • A positive home pregnancy test (possible ectopic pregnancy)
  • Fever of 38.3°C (101°F) or higher
  • Pain or difficulty urinating

Call your doctor to find out when an evaluation is needed if you:

  • Have a dull pain, unusual or persistent cramping, or a feeling of pressure in the lower abdomen.
  • Need to urinate frequently or have pain, burning, or itching with urination for longer than 24 hours.
  • Have pain during sex (dyspareunia), especially in the abdomen.
  • Have abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • Suspect that you have been exposed to a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
  • Have a vaginal discharge that is yellow or green or smells bad.
  • Have bleeding between menstrual periods.
  • Bleed after sexual intercourse or after vaginal douching.
  • Have a sex partner who has any symptoms of an STI (such as discharge, genital sores, or pain in the genital area).

If you have not been diagnosed with PID but you have symptoms that concern you, see the following topics:

Watchful Waiting

Any symptoms or other changes that suggest PID or a sexually transmitted infection (STI) should be evaluated by a doctor as soon as possible. Watchful waiting is not appropriate.

  • Early treatment (within 48 to 72 hours after symptoms begin) may reduce or prevent complications of PID.
  • To prevent spreading a possible infection, avoid sexual intercourse until you are evaluated.

To prevent reinfection from an STI, be sure that anyone you have had sexual contact with has been tested, treated if necessary, and uses condoms when you resume sexual relations.

Who To See

Your family doctor, general practitioner, or gynecologist can diagnose and treat pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Complications of PID are usually treated by a gynecologist.

To prepare for your appointment, see the topic Making the Most of Your Appointment.

Examinations and Tests

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is often difficult to diagnose because:

  • PID symptoms vary and can be mistakenly linked to other health conditions.
  • There is no single test that can detect PID. It is diagnosed by the combination of your medical history, your symptoms, a physical examination, and lab test results.
  • It is hard to examine the inside of the abdomen or a fallopian tube to see whether an infection is present.

Guidelines for PID care urge prompt treatment, even when only the minimal clinical criteria for the diagnosis of PID are met and even before laboratory test results are available.3 This means that you may be given antibiotic treatment right away, based on your risk factors, medical history, and physical examination. Delaying treatment for several days could increase your risks of fallopian tube damage and infertility.

Medical history

To learn about your medical history, your doctor may ask you the following questions.

  • Is it possible that you are pregnant?
  • Do you think you were exposed to any sexually transmitted infections (STIs)? How do you know? Did your partner tell you?
  • What are your symptoms?
    • Do you have vaginal discharge? If you have discharge from the vagina, it is important to note any smell or colour.
    • Do you have sores in the genital area or anywhere else on your body?
    • Do you have any urinary symptoms, including frequent urination, burning or stinging with urination, or urinating in small amounts?
  • What method of birth control do you use? Do you use condoms to protect against STIs?
  • Do you or your partner engage in high-risk sexual behaviours, including sex without a condom?
  • Do you or your partner have other sexual contact outside of your relationship?
  • Have you had an STI in the past? How was it treated?
  • Have you had PID in the past? How was it treated?
  • When was your last menstrual period?

Physical examination

After your medical history is taken, the initial examination for PID will include a pelvic examination.

Laboratory and imaging tests

A pregnancy test is done to rule out the possibility of a tubal (ectopic) pregnancy.

Tests for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and bacterial vaginosis are done, because they are most commonly linked to PID. These are done during your pelvic examination.

Other tests may be done to confirm the diagnosis of PID, to rule out other problems (such as appendicitis), or to find out whether the infection has spread. These tests include:

Laparoscopy and ultrasound are considered the best procedures for diagnosing PID. But these tests are not done unless the diagnosis is in doubt or the results from the procedure will change the method used for treatment.

Early Detection

There is no standard screening for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) at this time. But routine annual screening of young, sexually active women for chlamydia is thought to reduce the number of cases of PID and is recommended by experts.

Be sure to have a gynecologic examination promptly whenever you notice pelvic infection symptoms or pelvic pain. If you have been exposed to an STI, see your doctor for testing right away. If you are diagnosed with an STI, especially gonorrhea or chlamydia, you will be treated and evaluated for PID. Your partner(s) must also have treatment for the STI.

Women who have recently been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) also should be checked for other STIs.

Treatment Overview

Untreated pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) can produce scar tissue (adhesions) that can cause ongoing (chronic) pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. This is why PID must be treated right away, even if you have only one or two signs of PID.3 This means that you may be given antibiotic treatment before lab results have come back, based on your medical history and a physical examination. This is because waiting several days to treat you could raise your risks of fallopian tube damage and infertility.4, 5

Initial treatment

Antibiotic treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) usually takes 14 days. But the number of days you continue to take antibiotics depends on your infection and the type of antibiotic medicine. Your partner will also need treatment. Although you may feel better before the 2 weeks are up, be sure to finish taking the medicine. If you don't, the infection may return. You may also be able to use a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to relieve PID pain or discomfort.

Follow-up evaluations are important for making sure that treatment is working. Close monitoring may be able to prevent complications, such as chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Your doctor will want to check you 2 to 3 days after you've started treatment, then 7 to 10 days later. You will also have a checkup 4 to 6 weeks after treatment has ended, to monitor your recovery.

What to think about

If you have an intrauterine device (IUD) for birth control in place and you develop PID, your doctor will give you antibiotics to treat the infection. You may not need to have the IUD removed, depending on how severe the infection is.3

Your doctor will recommend hospitalization if you are pregnant, are very ill, are vomiting, may need surgery for a tubo-ovarian abscess or ectopic pregnancy (which can result from PID), or aren't able to treat yourself at home.

Anyone with whom you have had sexual contact in the last 60 days should be evaluated and treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to prevent reinfection and passing infection on to someone else. Treatment for gonorrhea or chlamydia is not the same as treatment for PID. Different antibiotics are sometimes prescribed for PID, and they are taken for a longer period of time. Your partner will probably also need to take antibiotics.

To prevent reinfection, do not have sex until both you and your sex partner(s) have completed antibiotic treatment.

Ongoing treatment

If initial antibiotic treatment cures the infection that caused pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), you will not need ongoing treatment. But it is important to make sure the infection is cured by following up with your doctor.

Avoiding a recurrent pelvic infection, particularly involving a sexually transmitted infection (STI), is the key to preventing another episode of PID. Regular condom use reduces the risk of recurrent PID. (Having repeat episodes of PID increases your risks of tubal infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and ectopic pregnancy. For more information, see the Prevention section of this topic.)

Treatment if the condition gets worse

Most cases of PID are cured with antibiotic therapy. Surgery is not usually necessary to treat PID. But surgery may be needed to:

  • Drain or remove a pocket of infection (abscess).
  • Cut scar tissue (adhesions) that is causing pain. (Surgery to remove adhesions from pelvic inflammatory disease has not been proved to relieve pain unless adhesions are severe.6)

Exploratory surgery is sometimes used when a diagnosis is still unclear after other tests are done or when antibiotic treatment is not working. Diagnostic laparoscopy (which involves using a small lighted viewing instrument) is usually used.

What to think about

To avoid reinfection, it is critically important that you and your sex partner(s) be treated.

After having PID, it's important that you have any further pelvic symptoms checked promptly. Your doctor will want to examine you for signs of another infection, possible pelvic organ damage (adhesions), and other possible causes of your symptoms.


You can prevent pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) by using condoms. This helps protect you from sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that cause PID.

If you have had chlamydia (a common cause of PID) one time in the past, you might now be more sensitive to this bacteria. A second chlamydia infection can cause more irritation and pelvic organ damage that is worse than before. For this reason, it's very important that you use condoms to avoid being exposed to STIs. After having had PID, using a condom every time you have sex lowers your risk of recurrent PID and ongoing (chronic) pelvic pain.

Practice safe sex

Preventing an STI is easier than treating an infection after it occurs. Abstaining from sexual contact is the only certain way to avoid exposure to STIs. Consistent condom use will greatly reduce your risk of an STI infection that can lead to PID. Even if you are using another birth control method to prevent pregnancy, use condoms to reduce infection risk.

  • Talk with your partner about STIs before beginning a sexual relationship. Find out whether he or she is at risk for an STI. Remember that most STIs, like chlamydia and herpes, can infect you without causing symptoms, so only test results can tell whether your partner is infection-free. Some STIs, such as HIV, can take up to 6 months before they can be detected in the blood.
  • Be responsible.
    • Avoid sexual contact if you have symptoms of an STI or are being treated for an STI.
    • Avoid all intimate sexual contact with anyone who has symptoms of an STI or who may have been exposed to an STI.
  • Don't have more than one sex partner at a time. Your risk for an STI increases if you have several sex partners at the same time.

Condom use

Use a condom every time you have sex. This lowers your risk of getting an STI or PID. You must put on a condom before beginning any sexual contact. Use condoms with a new partner until you are certain he or she does not have an STI.

You can use a male or female condom. A female condom is a good option for a woman whose partner does not have or will not use a male condom. For information about male and female condoms, see how to use a condom.


Avoid douching, which increases your risk for vaginal and pelvic infections.

Home Treatment

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) require prompt medical treatment. If you have any unusual pelvic symptoms or pain, see your doctor without delay, even if your symptoms don't seem serious.

After you have started medical treatment for PID, your doctor will give you specific instructions for home care. Be sure to follow those instructions and keep all follow-up appointments.

Use the following home treatment measures to support your recovery.

  • Rest as much as possible until your symptoms start to get better (usually a couple of days), then return to your usual activities slowly.
  • Take regular doses of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), such as ibuprofen, for pain. If pain does not improve within 48 to 72 hours after you start treatment, tell your doctor.
  • Do not have sex until you've taken all antibiotic medicine, your pain is gone entirely, and you feel completely well. Also, do not have sex until your partner or partners have finished treatment for any sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
  • Make and keep follow-up appointments. Your doctor will want to see you 2 to 3 days after you've started antibiotics to make sure they are working. You may also be seen for follow-up 7 to 10 days later to make sure you are getting better and to talk about how to avoid another infection. You may have an additional follow-up examination at 4 to 6 weeks to see whether you've fully recovered.
  • Call your doctor if your symptoms get worse or come back.


The treatment of choice for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is usually 2 weeks of a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which kills more than one type of bacteria. But the number of days you continue to take antibiotics depends on your infection and the type of antibiotic medicine. If taken properly, antibiotics will destroy the bacteria causing PID. Prompt antibiotic treatment may prevent complications from PID or reduce their severity.

Treatment is started even when you meet only the minimum criteria for PID with or without other symptoms. Treatment for gonorrhea or chlamydia is not the same as treatment for PID. Different antibiotics are sometimes used for PID, and they are taken for a longer period of time.

To prevent reinfection, sex partners with or without symptoms must also be tested for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (particularly gonorrhea and chlamydia). Any infection must be immediately treated.

It sometimes takes more than one course of medicine to cure PID. Sometimes bacteria can become resistant to an antibiotic, meaning that the antibiotic is no longer effective against the bacteria. This makes it necessary to try another type of antibiotic.

Reinfection from an untreated sex partner also requires another round of antibiotic treatment.

Medication Choices

Antibiotics for pelvic inflammatory disease

What To Think About

Delaying treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) increases the risk of future problems such as ongoing (chronic) pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility.

The treatment for PID usually takes 2 weeks. But the number of days you continue to take antibiotics depends on your infection and the type of antibiotic medicine. It is very important that you take all the medicine, or the infection can come back.


Surgery is not usually done to treat pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) unless it is needed to:

Surgery is sometimes used when a diagnosis is still unclear after other tests are done or when antibiotic treatment is not working. Diagnostic laparoscopy is usually used.

Surgery Choices

Procedures that may be used to diagnose and treat the complications of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) include:

  • Laparoscopy, which allows the surgeon to insert a lighted viewing instrument through a very small abdominal incision, look for signs of ectopic pregnancy or infection and scar tissue, and make repairs if necessary.
  • Laparotomy, which allows the surgeon to directly inspect the abdominal cavity through a small incision in the abdomen and make repairs if necessary.
  • Drainage of an abscess using a needle and syringe. The doctor usually uses ultrasound to clearly see where the needle is going, which makes an incision unnecessary.

What To Think About

Surgery to remove adhesions caused by pelvic inflammatory disease has not been proved to relieve pain unless adhesions are severe (referred to as stage IV adhesions).6

The need for surgical treatment of PID has decreased over the past several years because of earlier diagnosis and better antibiotic treatment.

Laparoscopy or laparotomy may be done for diagnosis of pelvic symptoms, and treatment can be done at the same time. Laparoscopy is used more often. Laparotomy typically requires a longer recovery period.

Other Treatment

There is no other treatment available for pelvic inflammatory disease at this time.

Other Places To Get Help


Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC)
780 Echo Drive
Ottawa, ON  K1S 5R7
Phone: 1-800-561-2416
(613) 730-4192
Fax: (613) 730-4314
Web Address:

The mission of SOGC is to promote optimal women's health through leadership, collaboration, education, research, and advocacy in the practice of obstetrics and gynaecology.

Canadian Women's Health Network
419 Graham Avenue
Suite 203
Winnipeg, MB  R3C 0M3
Phone: 1-888-818-9172
(204) 942-5500
Fax: (204) 989-2355
Web Address:

The Canadian Women's Health Network (CWHN) is a network of individuals, groups, organizations, and institutions. CWHN promotes information sharing, education, and advocacy for women's health and equality, and provides resources and information on women's health issues. In addition, it runs a clearinghouse of women-centred, health-related resources. The Web site also includes new research articles, information sheets, and press releases.

Health Canada Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Web Page
Web Address:

Health Canada's Web page on sexually transmitted infections provides basic education on STIs, such as HIV/AIDs and chlamydia, and what you can do to prevent and treat them.



  1. Soper DE (2010). Infections of the female pelvis. In Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed., vol. 1, pp. 1511–1519. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
  2. Paavonen J, et al. (2008). Pelvic inflammatory disease. In KK Holmes et al., eds., Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 4th ed., pp. 1017–1050. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  3. American Academy of Pediatrics (2009). Pelvic inflammatory disease. In LK Pickering et al., eds., Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 28th ed., pp. 499–504. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006, updated 2007). Pelvic inflammatory disease section of Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006. MMWR, 55(RR-11): 56–61.
  5. Public Health Agency of Canada (2008). Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Updated: January 2010. Canadian Guidelines on Sexually Transmitted Infections. Available online:
  6. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2004, reaffirmed 2008). Chronic pelvic pain. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 51. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 103(3): 589–605.

Other Works Consulted

  • Ross J (2007). PID, search date May 2007. Online version of BMJ Clinical Evidence:


By Healthwise Staff
Primary Medical Reviewer Sarah Marshall, MD - Family Medicine
Primary Medical Reviewer Brian D. O'Brien, MD - Internal Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer Kirtly Jones, MD, MD - Obstetrics and Gynecology
Last Revised January 25, 2011

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