Schindler Disease

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Schindler Disease

National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

It is possible that the main title of the report Schindler Disease is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.


  • Alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase Deficiency, Schindler Type
  • Alpha-NAGA Deficiency, Schindler Type
  • Lysosomal Alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase Deficiency, Schindler Type
  • GALB Deficiency
  • Neuroaxonal Dystrophy, Schindler Type
  • Neuronal Axonal Dystrophy, Schindler Type

Disorder Subdivisions

  • Alpha-Galactosidase B Deficiency
  • Alpha-GalNAc Deficiency, Schindler Type
  • Schindler Disease, Type I (Infantile Onset)
  • Schindler Disease, Infantile Onset
  • Infantile Onset Schindler Disease
  • Classic Schindler Disease
  • Schindler Disease, Type II (Adult Onset)
  • Adult Onset Schindler Disease
  • Lysosomal Glycoaminoacid Storage Disease-Angiokeratoma Corporis Diffusum
  • Angiokeratoma Corporis Diffusum-Glycopeptiduria
  • Kanzaki Disease

General Discussion

Schindler Disease is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NAGA). The disorder belongs to a group of diseases known as lysosomal storage disorders. Lysosomes function as the primary digestive units within cells. Enzymes within lysosomes break down or digest particular nutrients, such as certain fats and carbohydrates. In individuals with Schindler Disease, deficiency of the alpha-NAGA enzyme leads to an abnormal accumulation of certain complex compounds (glycosphingolipids) in many tissues of the body.

There are two forms of Schindler Disease. The classical form of the disorder, known as Schindler Disease, Type I, has an infantile onset. Affected individuals appear to develop normally until approximately 1 year of age, when they begin to lose previously acquired skills that require the coordination of physical and mental activities (developmental regression). Additional neurological and neuromuscular symptoms may become apparent, including diminished muscle tone (hypotonia) and weakness; involuntary, rapid eye movements (nystagmus); visual impairment; and episodes of uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain (seizures). With continuing disease progression, affected children typically develop restricted movements of certain muscles due to progressively increased muscle rigidity, severe mental retardation, hearing and visual impairment, and a lack of response to stimuli in the environment.

Schindler Disease, Type II, which is also known as Kanzaki Disease, is the adult-onset form of the disorder. Associated symptoms may not become apparent until the second or third decade of life. In this milder form of the disease, symptoms may include the development of clusters of wart-like discolorations on the skin (angiokeratomas); permanent widening of groups of blood vessels (telangiectasia), causing redness of the skin in affected areas; relative coarsening of facial features; and mild intellectual impairment. The progressive neurological degeneration characteristically seen in the infantile form of the disease has not occurred in association with Schindler Disease, Type II.

Both forms of Schindler Disease are inherited as autosomal recessive traits. According to investigators, different changes (mutations) of the same gene are responsible for the infantile- and adult-onset forms of the disease. The gene has been mapped to the long arm (q) of chromosome 22 (22q11).


Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB)
Climb Building
176 Nantwich Road
Crewe, Intl CW2 6BG
United Kingdom
Tel: 0845 241 2174
Tel: 800 652 3181

Vaincre Les Maladies Lysosomales
2 Ter Avenue
Massy, 91300
Tel: 01 69 75 40 30
Fax: 01 60 11 15 83

National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association, Inc.
2001 Beacon Street
Brookline, MA 02146-4227
Tel: (617)277-4463
Fax: (617)277-0134
Tel: (800)906-8723

NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
P.O. Box 5801
Bethesda, MD 20824
Tel: (301)496-5751
Fax: (301)402-2186
Tel: (800)352-9424
TDD: (301)468-5981

International Advocate For Glycoprotein Storage Diseases
20880 Canyon View Drive
Saratoga, CA 95070
Tel: (410)628-9991

Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
Tel: (301)251-4925
Fax: (301)251-4911
Tel: (888)205-2311
TDD: (888)205-3223

Madisons Foundation
PO Box 241956
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: (310)264-0826
Fax: (310)264-4766

Hide & Seek Foundation for Lysosomal Disease Research
6475 East Pacific Coast Highway Suite 466
Long Beach, CA 90803
Tel: (877)621-1122
Fax: (866)215-8850

For a Complete Report

This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc. ® (NORD). A copy of the complete report can be obtained for a small fee by visiting the NORD website. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational treatments (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, see

The information provided in this report is not intended for diagnostic purposes. It is provided for informational purposes only. NORD recommends that affected individuals seek the advice or counsel of their own personal physicians.

It is possible that the title of this topic is not the name you selected. Please check the Synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and Disorder Subdivision(s) covered by this report

This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD's resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about this disorder.

For additional information and assistance about rare disorders, please contact the National Organization for Rare Disorders at P.O. Box 1968, Danbury, CT 06813-1968; phone (203) 744-0100; web site or email

Last Updated:  5/28/2008
Copyright  1995, 1996, 1998, 2000 National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

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