GERD: Esophageal Erosion and Ulcers

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GERD: Esophageal Erosion and Ulcers

Topic Overview

The backup, or reflux, of stomach acids and juices into the esophagus that occurs with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can wear away (erode) the lining of the esophagus and cause sores, called ulcers.

GERD is caused when stomach acid and juices reflux into the esophagus. This happens when the valve between the lower end of the esophagus and the stomach (the lower esophageal sphincter) does not close tightly. This reflux can cause irritation, inflammation, or wearing away of the lining of the esophagus, which is called esophagitis.

In severe cases, patches of the lining of the esophagus wear away completely, and ulcers may develop. Ulcers can be shallow or deep and can destroy the lining of the esophagus where they develop.

Treatment for ulcers in the esophagus usually means treating the GERD that caused the ulcer in the first place. Treatment for GERD usually involves one of two options:

  • Medicine. Medicines used to treat GERD include:
    • Proton pump inhibitors, such as lansoprazole (Prevacid) and omeprazole (Losec).
    • H2 blockers, such as cimetidine and famotidine (Pepcid).
  • Surgery. Fundoplication surgery is the most common surgery used to treat GERD. During surgery, the upper curve of the stomach (the fundus) is wrapped around the esophagus and sewn into place so that the lower portion of the esophagus passes through a small tunnel of stomach muscle. This surgery strengthens the lower esophageal sphincter, which stops acid from backing up into the esophagus as easily. This allows the esophagus to heal.

Credits

By Healthwise Staff
Primary Medical Reviewer Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine
Primary Medical Reviewer Brian D. O'Brien, MD - Internal Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer Peter J. Kahrilas, MD - Gastroenterology
Last Revised May 18, 2010

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