Gastroparesis

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Gastroparesis

Topic Overview

What is gastroparesis?

Gastroparesis is a disorder in which the stomach takes too long to empty after eating. The delay results in bothersome and possibly serious symptoms because digestion is altered.

What causes gastroparesis?

Gastroparesis occurs when the nerves to the stomach are damaged or don't work. Diabetes is the most common cause. Other causes include some disorders of the nervous system, such as Parkinson's disease and stroke, and some medicines, such as tricyclic antidepressants, calcium channel blockers, and narcotics. It can also be a complication of gastric surgery.

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms are intermittent and most often occur during and after a meal. They include:

  • A feeling of fullness after only a few bites of food.
  • Frequent bloated feeling.
  • Belching and hiccups.
  • Heartburn or vague stomach pain.
  • Nausea or vomiting.
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss.

Symptoms range from mild to severe. Severe symptoms of gastroparesis may improve with treatment using medicines that help the stomach empty more quickly (motility agents). In very severe cases, a feeding tube placed in the small intestine may be needed.

A person with gastroparesis also may have episodes of high and low blood sugar levels. Gastroparesis may be suspected in a person with diabetes who has upper digestive tract symptoms or has blood sugar levels that are hard to control. Controlling blood sugar levels may reduce symptoms of gastroparesis.

How is gastroparesis diagnosed?

A diagnosis is confirmed with one or more tests that show how quickly food leaves your stomach, including a radioisotope gastric emptying scan. For these tests, you will drink a fluid or eat some food containing a tiny amount of radioactive substance that will not harm you. This substance shows up on a special image, allowing a doctor to see food in your stomach and watch how quickly it leaves your stomach.

How is it treated?

Treatment for gastroparesis depends on the severity of the condition and may include:

  • Eating several small meals each day rather than three larger meals.
  • Eating meals that are low in fibre and fat.
  • Medicine to help the stomach empty more quickly (motility agents), such as metoclopramide, domperidone, or erythromycin. Erythromycin is an antibiotic, but it can also help the stomach empty more quickly.
  • Surgery to place a feeding tube in the small intestine, if gastroparesis is severe.

Other Places To Get Help

Organizations

Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
1540 Cornwall Road
Suite 224
Oakville, ON  L6J 7W5
Phone: 1-888-780-0007
(905) 829-2504
Fax: (905) 829-0242
Email: general@cag-acg.org
Web Address: www.cag-acg.org
 

The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) provides educational information and supports research about digestive health and disease.


National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC)
2 Information Way
Bethesda, MD  20892-3570
Phone: 1-800-891-5389
Fax: (703) 738-4929
Email: nddic@info.niddk.nih.gov
Web Address: www.digestive.niddk.nih.gov
 

This clearinghouse is a service of the U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The clearinghouse answers questions; develops, reviews, and sends out publications; and coordinates information resources about digestive diseases. Publications produced by the clearinghouse are reviewed carefully for scientific accuracy, content, and readability.


References

Other Works Consulted

  • Mahimo H, et al. (2005). Effects of diabetes mellitus on the digestive system. In Joslin's Diabetes Mellitus, 14th ed., pp. 1070–1102. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
  • Gomez J, Parkman HP (2009). Gastrointestinal motility and functional disorders. In EG Nabel, ed., ACP Medicine, section 4, chap. 14. Hamilton, ON: BC Decker.
  • Wang VS, et al. (2009). Disorders of gastric and small bowel motility. In NJ Greenberger et al., eds., Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Endoscopy, pp. 200–209. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Credits

By Healthwise Staff
Primary Medical Reviewer Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine
Primary Medical Reviewer Andrew Swan, MD, CCFP, FCFP - Family Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer Arvydas D. Vanagunas, MD - Gastroenterology
Last Revised September 22, 2010

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