Hydrocele

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Hydrocele

Topic Overview

What is a hydrocele?

A hydrocele is a painless buildup of watery fluid around one or both testicles that causes the scrotum or groin area to swell. This swelling may be unsightly and uncomfortable, but it usually is not painful and generally is not dangerous. Although hydroceles are common in newborns, they can also occur at any age in later life. See a picture of a hydrocele.

What causes a hydrocele?

The cause of most hydroceles is unknown.

Hydroceles in newborns may mean there is an opening between the abdomen and the scrotum. Normally such openings close before birth or shortly after.

Hydroceles that appear later in life may be caused by an injury or surgery to the scrotum or groin area. Or they can be caused by inflammation or infection of the epididymis or testicles. In rare cases, hydroceles may occur with cancer of the testicle or the left kidney. This type of hydrocele can occur at any age but is most common in men older than 40.

What are the symptoms?

Often a hydrocele does not cause symptoms. You may notice enlargement of your scrotum. Symptoms, when present, can include pain, swelling, or redness of the scrotum or a feeling of pressure at the base of the penis.

How is a hydrocele diagnosed?

A hydrocele is usually diagnosed by an examination of the scrotum, which may appear enlarged. As part of the examination, your doctor will shine a light behind each testicle (transillumination). This is to check for solid masses that may be caused by other problems, such as cancer of the testicle. Hydroceles are filled with fluid, so light will shine through them (transillumination). Light will not pass through solid masses that may be caused by other problems, such as cancer of the testicle. An ultrasound may be used to confirm the diagnosis of a hydrocele.

How is it treated?

Hydroceles are not usually dangerous and are treated only when they cause pain or embarrassment or when they decrease the blood supply to the penis (rare). Treatment is not usually needed if a hydrocele does not change in size or gets smaller as the body reabsorbs the fluid. Hydroceles in men younger than 65 may go away by themselves. But hydroceles in older men do not usually go away.

Fluid can also be removed from a hydrocele with a needle (aspiration). But hydroceles that are aspirated often return, and surgery may then be needed. Aspiration is recommended only for men who are not physically able to have surgery because of the risk of infection and recurrence.

If the hydrocele gets larger or causes discomfort, surgery to remove the hydrocele (hydrocelectomy) may be needed.

Other Places To Get Help

Organizations

Canadian Paediatric Society
2305 Saint Laurent Boulevard
Ottawa, ON  K1G 4J8
Phone: (613) 526-9397
Fax: (613) 526-3332
Email: info@cps.ca
Web Address: www.cps.ca
 

The Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) promotes quality health care for Canadian children and establishes guidelines for paediatric care. The organization offers educational materials on a variety of topics, including information on immunizations, pregnancy, safety issues, and teen health.


Canadian Urological Association
Web Address: www.cua.org
 

The Canadian Urological Association provides information about a variety of urological conditions in the patient information section on this Web site. Some of the pediatric topics are bedwetting, circumcision, and undescended testicle. Adult topics range from prostate, kidney, and bladder health to erectile dysfunction and vasectomy.


KidsHealth for Parents, Children, and Teens
4600 Touchton Road East, Building 200
Suite 500
Jacksonville, FL  32246
Phone: (904) 232-4100
Fax: (904) 232-4125
Web Address: www.kidshealth.org
 

This Web site is sponsored by Nemours Foundation. It has a wide range of information about children's health, from allergies and diseases to normal growth and development (birth to adolescence). This Web site offers separate areas for kids, teens, and parents, each providing age-appropriate information that the child or parent can understand. You can sign up to get weekly e-mails about your area of interest.


U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Building 31, Room 9A06
31 Center Drive, MSC 2560
Bethesda, MD  20892-2560
Phone: (301) 496-3583
Web Address: www.niddk.nih.gov
 

The U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) provides information and conducts research on a wide variety of diseases as well as issues such as weight control and nutrition.


UrologyHealth.org, American Urological Association
1000 Corporate Boulevard
Linthicum, MD  21090
Phone: 1-866-RING AUA (1-866-746-4282) toll-free
Phone: (410) 689-3700
Fax: (410) 689-3800
Email: auafoundation@auafoundation.org
Email: patienteducation@auafoundation.org
Web Address: www.urologyhealth.org
 

UrologyHealth.org is a website written by urologists for patients. Visitors can find specific topics by using the "search" option.

The website provides information about adult and pediatric urologic topics, including kidney, bladder, and prostate conditions. You can find a urologist, sign up for a free quarterly newsletter, or click on the Urology Resource Center to find materials about urologic problems.


References

Other Works Consulted

  • Schneck FX, Bellinger MF (2007). Hernias and hydroceles section of Abnormalities of the testes and scrotum and their surgical management. In AJ Wein et al., eds., Campbell-Walsh Urology, 9th ed., vol. 4., pp. 3787–3789. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.

Credits

By Healthwise Staff
Primary Medical Reviewer E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine
Primary Medical Reviewer Andrew Swan, MD, CCFP, FCFP - Family Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer Christopher G. Wood, MD, FACS - Urology, Oncology
Last Revised March 16, 2011

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