Healthy Diet Guidelines for a Healthy Heart

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Healthy Diet Guidelines for a Healthy Heart

Topic Overview

Some groups, such as the American Heart Association (AHA), publish dietary and lifestyle guidelines for general heart health.1 These guidelines are similar to the recommendations of Canada's Food Guide and the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) diet from the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP).

These guidelines are for healthy adults and children older than age 2 as well as people who already have health problems such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or heart failure.

The AHA diet and lifestyle guidelines recommend that you:

  • Eat a variety of fruit and vegetable servings every day. Dark green, deep orange, or yellow fruits and vegetables are especially nutritious. Examples include spinach, carrots, peaches, and berries.
  • Eat a variety of grain products every day. Include whole-grain foods that have lots of fibre and nutrients. Examples of whole grains include oats, whole wheat bread, and brown rice.
  • Eat fish at least 2 times each week. Oily fish, which contain omega-3 fatty acids, are best for your heart. These fish include tuna, salmon, mackerel, lake trout, herring, and sardines.
  • Stay at a healthy weight by balancing the amount of calories you eat with the activity you do every day. If you want to lose weight, increase your activity level to burn more calories than you eat.
  • Eat foods low in saturated fat and cholesterol. Try to choose the following foods:
    • Lean meats and meat alternatives like beans or tofu
    • Fish, vegetables, beans, and nuts
    • Non-fat and low-fat dairy products
    • Polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fats, like canola and olive oils, to replace saturated fats, such as butter
  • Read food labels and limit the amount of trans fat you eat. Trans fat raises the levels of LDL ("bad”) cholesterol and also lowers high-density lipoprotein (HDL, or "good") cholesterol in the blood. Trans fat is found in many processed foods made with shortening or with partially hydrogenated or hydrogenated vegetable oils. These foods include cookies, crackers, chips, and many snack foods.
  • Limit sodium intake to less than 2,300 mg of sodium per day (about one teaspoon). Choose and prepare foods with little or no salt.
  • Limit alcohol intake to 2 drinks per day for men and 1 drink per day for women.
  • Limit drinks and foods with added sugar.
  • When you are eating away from home, try to follow these heart-healthy guidelines.

Special considerations include the following:

  • Older people. As you age, you do not usually need to eat as many calories. Although the general dietary guidelines remain the same, older people should be careful to choose foods rich in nutrients to meet their nutritional needs without too many calories.
  • Children. Many more children are becoming overweight. Although more research is needed on specific dietary guidelines for children, overweight children have an increased risk for diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD) later in life. Children over the age of 2 can follow the AHA diet and lifestyle recommendations and maintain normal growth while lowering their risk of heart disease in the future.
  • People with kidney disease. Cardiovascular disease can develop in people who lose normal function of their kidneys. If you have kidney disease, you may need to limit some nutrients including protein and sodium. For more information, see the topic Chronic Kidney Disease.

Other heart-healthy diets

These recommendations from the AHA are just one of several eating plans that help keep your heart healthy. Other heart-healthy eating plans are the DASH diet, the TLC diet, and the Mediterranean diet. You may have a hard time knowing which one might be right for you. To help you compare these eating plans, see:

Comparing Heart-Healthy Diets (What is a PDF document?)

Other Places To Get Help

Organizations

Canada's Food Guide
Health Canada, Health Products and Food Branch, Office of Nutrition Policy and Promotion
Web Address: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guide-aliment/index_e.html
 

Canada's Food Guide provides resources to help guide food selection and promote the nutritional health of Canadians. Resources include outlines of the food groups, the recommended range of daily servings, background information about the food guide, and other information about healthy eating.


Dietitians of Canada
480 University Avenue
Suite 604
Toronto, ON  M5G 1V2
Phone: (416) 596-0857
Fax: (416) 596-0603
Email: centralinfo@dietitians.ca
Web Address: www.dietitians.ca
 

The Dietitians of Canada website provides a wide range of food and nutrition information, including fact sheets on frequently asked food and diet questions, quizzes and other tools to assess your diet habits, and meal planning guides.


Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
222 Queen Street
Suite 1402
Ottawa, ON  K1P 5V9
Phone: (613) 569-4361
Fax: (613) 569-3278
Web Address: www.heartandstroke.ca
 

The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada works to improve the health of Canadians by preventing and reducing disability and death from heart disease and stroke through research, health promotion, and advocacy.


References

Citations

  1. American Heart Association (2006). Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006. Circulation, 114(1): 82–96. [Erratum in Circulation, 114(1): e27.]

Credits

By Healthwise Staff
Primary Medical Reviewer E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine
Primary Medical Reviewer Brian D. O'Brien, MD - Internal Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer Carl Orringer, MD - Cardiology, Clinical Lipidology
Last Revised October 19, 2010

This information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise, Incorporated disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information.