Valley Fever

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Valley Fever

Topic Overview

What is valley fever?

Valley fever is a disease caused by a fungus that gets into your body through your lungs. It can make you feel like you have a cold or the flu and may cause a rash. Most people get better without treatment.

But if your body’s natural defence system (immune system) is weak, valley fever can be deadly. In rare cases it can be deadly even for people with a normal immune system. Valley fever can spread from your lungs to other parts of your body. Those at higher risk for severe illness include people with AIDS, pregnant women, people who take medicines that weaken the immune system, and people with diabetes. Filipinos, people of African descent, Hispanics, and Aboriginal peoples also have a higher risk.

Valley fever occurs in dry desert areas of the southwestern United States, central California, and Mexico. It also occurs in dry areas of Central and South America.

Valley fever is also called desert fever, San Joaquin Valley fever, coccidioidomycosis, and desert rheumatism.

What causes valley fever?

You can get valley fever if you breathe in the fungus that causes the disease.

The fungus grows in the soil. It gets into the air when the ground is broken and the dirt and dust spread into the air. People with jobs that require digging in the soil have the greatest chance of getting valley fever. This includes people who work on farms, in construction, and in archeology or palaeontology. People who ride bikes or drive all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in the desert also have a higher chance of getting it. Dust storms can spread the fungus into the air, so other people can also get valley fever.

Valley fever is not contagious. You cannot get it from another person or from animals.

After getting better, most people will not get valley fever again. This is called being immune. But valley fever can come back again in people who have weak immune systems and cannot fight infection. This includes people who have had an organ transplant or who have AIDS.

What are the symptoms?

Most people do not have any symptoms, or they have only very mild symptoms. If you do have symptoms, you may feel like you have a cold or the flu. You may have a fever, chills, chest pain, a dry cough, and a rash.

The time from contact with the fungus until symptoms start is usually 1 to 3 weeks. This is called the incubation period.

In rare cases, valley fever can spread to the skin, bones, lymph nodes, and organs. It can lead to meningitis, a very serious infection of the coverings around the brain and spinal cord.

The disease is more likely to spread to other areas of the body in people who have weak immune systems. This includes people with AIDS, pregnant women, people who take medicines that weaken the immune system, and people with diabetes.

Talk with your doctor if your symptoms are severe or last more than a few weeks, or if you have a weak immune system and have valley fever.

How is valley fever diagnosed?

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and do a physical examination. He or she may ask if you have travelled in areas where valley fever occurs. You may have a chest X-ray and a blood test to look for the fungus.

How is it treated?

Most people with valley fever get better without treatment. For severe cases, doctors may prescribe antifungal medicines. People who are more likely to have the disease spread to other areas of the body often get antifungal medicines even if they have no symptoms.

To make sure you are getting better, it's important to have follow-up visits with your doctor. You may have a chest X-ray or another blood test after several months to make sure.

There is no medicine to prevent valley fever. But you may be able to stay away from areas where valley fever is common.

Other Places To Get Help

Organizations

Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)
130 Colonnade Road
A.L. 6501H
Ottawa, ON  K1A 0K9
Phone: Telephone numbers for PHAC vary by region. For your regional number, go to the listing on the PHAC website at www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/contac-eng.php.
Web Address: www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/index-eng.php
 

The Public Health Agency of Canada (formerly the Population and Public Health Branch of Health Canada) is primarily responsible for policies, programs, and systems relating to disease prevention, health promotion, disease surveillance, community action, and disease control.


U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
1600 Clifton Road
Atlanta, GA  30333
Phone: 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636)
TDD: 1-888-232-6348
Email: cdcinfo@cdc.gov
Web Address: www.cdc.gov
 

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The CDC works with state and local health officials and the public to achieve better health for all people. The CDC creates the expertise, information, and tools that people and communities need to protect their health—by promoting health, preventing disease, injury, and disability, and being prepared for new health threats.


References

Other Works Consulted

  • American Academy of Pediatrics (2009). Coccidioidomycosis. In LK Pickering et al., eds., Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 28th ed., pp. 266–268. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.
  • American Public Health Association (2008). Coccidioidomycosis. In DL Heymann, ed., Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 19th ed., pp. 139–141. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
  • Davies SF, et al. (2005). Coccidioidomycosis section of Fungal infections. In RJ Mason et al., eds., Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, 4th ed., vol. 1, pp. 1060–1082. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders.

Credits

By Healthwise Staff
Primary Medical Reviewer E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer W. David Colby IV, MSc, MD, FRCPC - Infectious Disease
Last Revised January 28, 2010

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