Suicidal Thoughts or Threats

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Suicidal Thoughts or Threats

Topic Overview

Health Canada reports on suicide deaths and attempted suicide in Canada. According to the report, almost 3,700 Canadians die as a result of suicide. This report revealed that:1

  • Suicide is one of the leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 44.
  • Men are 4 times more likely than women to die from a suicide attempt.
  • 1 in 5 deaths among young adults ages 15–24 are from suicide.
  • Men use firearms and hanging methods of suicide more often then women.
  • Suicide rates are much higher in some Aboriginal communities.

Many people have fleeting thoughts of death. Fleeting thoughts of death are less of a problem and are much different from actively planning to commit suicide. Your risk of committing suicide is increased if you think about death and killing yourself often, or if you have made a suicide plan.

Most people who seriously consider suicide do not want to die. Rather, they see suicide as a solution to a problem and a way to end their pain. People who seriously consider suicide feel hopeless, helpless, and worthless. A person who feels hopeless believes that no one can help with a particular event or problem. A person who feels helpless is immobilized and unable to take steps to solve problems. A person who feels worthless is overwhelmed with a sense of personal failure.

Most people who seriously consider or attempt suicide have one or more of the following risks:

The warning signs of suicide change with age.

Anytime someone talks about suicide or about wanting to die or disappear, even in a joking manner, the conversation must be taken seriously. A suicide attempt—even if the attempt did not harm the person—also must be taken seriously. Don't be afraid to talk to someone you think may be considering suicide. There is no proof that talking about suicide leads to suicidal thinking or suicide. Once you know the person's thoughts on the subject, you may be able to help prevent a suicide.

People who have suicidal thoughts may not seek help because they feel they cannot be helped. This usually is not the case. Many people with suicidal thoughts have medical conditions that can be successfully treated. People who have suicidal thoughts often have depression or substance abuse, and both of these conditions can be treated. It is important to seek help when suicidal thoughts occur because medical treatment usually is successful in diminishing these thoughts.

The possibility of suicide is most serious when a person has a plan for committing suicide that includes:

  • Having the means, such as weapons or medicines, available to commit suicide or do harm to another person.
  • Having set a time and place to commit suicide.
  • Thinking there is no other way to solve the problem or end the pain.

People who are considering suicide often are undecided about choosing life or death. With compassionate help, they may choose to live.

Use the Check Your Symptoms section to decide if and when you should see a doctor or get other help.

Check Your Symptoms

Home Treatment

If you are thinking about suicide, talk to someone about your feelings. It is important to remember that there are people who are willing and able to talk with you about your suicidal thoughts. With proper treatment, most suicidal people can be helped to feel better about life.

People for you to consider talking with include:

  • A family member, friend, or spiritual adviser.
  • Your health professional, such as a doctor or counsellor.
  • Other mental health resources, such as a community mental health agency or employee assistance program.
  • Your local suicide hotline or this suicide hotline (Canada and U.S.) 1-800-273-TALK or 1-800-273-8255.

Tips for family and friends

You may be able to help someone who is considering suicide.

  • If the suicide threat seems real, and the person has a specific suicide plan:
    • Call 911 (or the police if 911 is not available) in order to prevent the person from carrying out the threat.
    • Consider your own safety. If you are in a safe environment and the person will not harm you:
      • Stay with the person, or ask someone you trust to stay with the person, until help arrives.
      • Don't argue with the person or make statements like "It's not as bad as you think," and don't challenge the person by saying "You're not the type to commit suicide." Arguing with the person may only increase his or her feelings of being out of control of his or her life.
      • Talk about the situation as openly as possible. Tell the person that you don't want him or her to die or to harm another person. Show understanding and compassion.
    • If you think that someone you know has made a suicide plan, call your health professional.
      • Your health professional may be able to help identify a mental health specialist and arrange an appointment for a person you think is considering suicide. An appointment with your health professional may not be needed.
      • If you are not able to talk with your health professional, call your local suicide hotline or this suicide hotline (Canada and U.S.) 1-800-273-TALK or 1-800-273-8255.
      • Once a treatment plan has been developed, you may be able to assist the person get the help he or she needs.

Symptoms to Watch For During Home Treatment

Use the Check Your Symptoms section to evaluate your symptoms if any of the following symptoms occur before you see your health professional:

Prevention

Suicide can be prevented. While some suicides occur without warning, most do not. You can learn to recognize the warning signs of suicide and take action when the signs are present. Take action to evaluate your suspicions if you think that someone you know is considering suicide.

  • The warning signs of suicide change with age. Know the warning signs of suicide:
  • Take all warning signs seriously, even if the suicidal threat or attempt seems minor. Take any conversation about suicide seriously, even if the person mentions it in a joking manner.
  • Don't be afraid to ask "What is the matter?" or bring up the subject of suicide. There is no proof that talking about suicide leads to suicidal thinking or suicide.
  • Be willing to listen. If a family member, friend, or co-worker talks about suicide or wanting to die or disappear, even in a joking manner, the conversation must be taken seriously. Once you know the person's thoughts on the subject, you may be able to help prevent a suicide.
  • Help the person make arrangements to see a doctor or mental health professional immediately.
    • Since a suicidal person may feel he or she cannot be helped, you may have to take an active role in finding a health professional and getting the person to the appointment.
    • If you are unfamiliar with mental health resources in your area, a doctor, counsellor, community mental health agency, local suicide hotline, or this suicide hotline (Canada and U.S.) 1-800-273-TALK or 1-800-273-8255. may be able to help identify a health professional.
    • Make sure the person will have someone with him or her at all times until contact is made with a mental health professional.
    • Help the person identify other potential sources of support from people who care about him or her, such as family, friends, or spiritual adviser.
  • Follow up to find out how the person's treatment is going. A suicidal person may be reluctant to seek help and may not continue with treatment after the first visit with a health professional. Your support may help the person decide to continue treatment.
  • Remove all guns from the home. Studies have shown that suicide attempts are more likely to lead to death in homes that have a gun, even if the gun is kept unloaded and securely locked up.
  • Discard all prescription and non-prescription medicines that are not currently being used.

Preparing For Your Appointment

To prepare for your appointment, see the topic Making the Most of Your Appointment.

You can help your health professional diagnose and treat your condition by being prepared to answer the following questions:

  • How long have you had suicidal thoughts?
  • How often do you think about committing suicide?
  • What was going on in your life when you first noticed the depressed or suicidal feelings?
  • Have you ever had similar thoughts in the past? If so, did you seek and receive treatment?
  • Have you attempted suicide in the past? If so, did you seek and receive treatment?
  • Have you ever been diagnosed with a mental health problem, such as severe anxiety, depression, or schizophrenia?
  • Has a family member or close friend ever attempted or committed suicide?
  • Has anyone in your family ever been diagnosed with a mental health problem, such as depression or schizophrenia?
  • Have you had a recent stressful event in your life?
  • Do you keep guns in your home?
  • Are you a regular or heavy user of alcohol or illegal drugs? Have you used alcohol or illegal drugs to reduce symptoms of depression?
  • Are you taking any prescription or non-prescription medicine? If so, make a list of your medicines and take it with you.
  • Are you taking a medicine to treat depression? What is the medicine? When did you start the medicine?
  • Do you have any risk factors that make you more likely to have suicidal thoughts?

Other Places To Get Help

Organizations

Canadian Association for Suicide Prevention
870 Portage Avenue
Winnipeg, MB  R3G 0P1
Phone: (204) 784-4073
Fax: (204) 772-7998
Web Address: www.suicideprevention.ca
 

CASP’s purpose is to reduce the suicide rate and minimize the harmful consequences of suicidal behaviour.


Canadian Mental Health Association
595 Montreal Road
Suite 303
Ottawa, ON  K1K 4L2
Phone: (613) 745-7750
Fax: (613) 745-5522
Email: info@cmha.ca
Web Address: www.cmha.ca
 

The Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) promotes mental health and focuses on combatting mental health problems and emotional disorders. The organization offers workshops, pamphlets, newsletters, and other educational materials.


LivingWorks
4303D 11 Street SE
Calgary, AB  T2G 4X1
Phone: (403) 209-0242
Fax: (403) 209-0259
Email: info@livingworks.net
Web Address: www.livingworks.net
 

LivingWorks is an education organization to enhance suicide intervention skills at the community level. It is committed to making its suicide prevention training programs widely available, cost-effective, interactive, and easy to learn, with practical applications designed for all types of caregivers.


References

Citations

  1. Health Canada (2006). Suicidal behaviour. In The Human Face of Mental Health and Mental Illness in Canada, chap. 8, pp. 105–116. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada.

Credits

By Healthwise Staff
Primary Medical Reviewer William H. Blahd, Jr., MD, FACEP - Emergency Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer David Messenger, MD
Last Revised January 11, 2011

This information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise, Incorporated disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information.