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Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants

 

Central Nervous System CNS Depressants

Definition

Central nervous system (CNS) depressants are drugs that can be used to slow down brain activity.

Purpose

CNS depressants may be prescribed by a physician to treat anxiety, muscle tension, pain, insomnia, acute stress reactions, panic attacks, and seizure disorders. In higher doses, some CNS depressants may be used as general anesthetics.

Description

Throughout history, humans have sought relief from anxiety and insomnia by using substances that depress brain activity and induce a drowsy or calming effect. CNS depressants include a wide range of drugs such as alcohol, narcotics, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal), benzodiazepines (Ativan, Halcion, Librium, Valium, Xanax), chloral hydrate, and methaqualone (Quaaludes), as well as newer CNS depressants developed in the 1990s, such as Buspirone (Buspar) and Zolpidem (Ambien), which are thought to have the fewest side effects. Most CNS depressants activate a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps decrease brain activity. Street names for CNS depressants include Reds, Yellows, Blues, Ludes, Barbs, and Downers.

Precautions

Most CNS depressants have the potential to be physically and psychologically addictive. Alcohol is the most widely abused depressant. The body tends to develop tolerance for CNS depressants, and larger doses are needed to achieve the same effects. Withdrawal from some CNS depressants can be uncomfortable; for example, withdrawal from a depressant treating insomnia or anxiety can cause rebound insomnia or anxiety as the brain’s activity bounces back after being suppressed. In some cases withdrawal can result in lifethreatening seizures. Generally, depressant withdrawal should be undertaken under a physician’s supervision. Many physicians will reduce the depressant dosage gradually, to give the body time to adjust. Certain CNS depressants such as barbiturates are easy to overdose on, since there is a relatively small difference between the optimal dose and an overdose. A small miscalculation can lead to coma, slowed breathing, and death. CNS depressants should be administered to elderly individuals with care, as these individuals have a reduced ability to metabolize CNS depressants.

Side effects

Especially when taken in excess, CNS depressants can cause confusion and dizziness, and impair judgment, memory, intellectual performance, and motor coordination.

Interactions

CNS depressants should be used with other medications, such as antidepressant medications, only under a physician’s supervision. Certain herbal remedies, such as Valerian and Kava, may dangerously exacerbate the effects of certain CNS depressants. Also, ingesting a combination of CNS depressants, such Valium and alcohol, for example, is not advised. When mixed together, CNS depressants tend to amplify each other’s effects, which can cause severely reduced heart rate and even death.

Key terms

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) — A neurotransmitter that slows down the activity of nerve cells in the brain.
Neurotransmitter — A chemical compound in the brain that carries signals from one nerve cell to another.

Resources

Books

Fontanarosa, P. Alternative Medicine: An Objective Assessment. American Medical Association, 2000.

Organizations

American Society of Addiction Medicine. 4601 North Park Avenue, Arcade Suite 101, Chevy Chase, MD 20815. (301) 656-3920. http://www.asam.org.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. 6001 Executive Blvd, Bethesda, MD 20892. (301) 443-1124 http://www.nida.nih.gov.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.