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Recurrent intraventricular thrombus six months after ST-elevation myocardial infarction in a diabetic man: a case report

 

Percutaneous coronary intervention with placement of a drug-eluting stent in a diabetic patient with ST-elevation myocardial infarction is a relatively common procedure, and always requires subsequent treatment with dual antiplatelet therapy. It is sometimes necessary to add oral anticoagulation therapy because of individual clinical circumstances, which further increases the risk of bleeding.Case presentationA 66-year-old hypertensive diabetic man with a history of gastrointestinal bleeding was admitted with an ST-elevation inferior myocardial infarction that had been evolving over 72 h.

Electrocardiography showed ST segment elevation in the inferior leads and Q waves in the inferior and anterior leads. He reported a similar episode of chest pain 1 month previously, for which he had not sought medical treatment.

Coronary angiography showed chronic occlusion of the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery, and acute occlusion of the mid-right coronary artery. He was treated by percutaneous coronary intervention, with placement of a drug-eluting stent in the right coronary artery.

Soon after admission, transthoracic echocardiography showed abnormal left ventricular contractility and a large left intraventricular thrombus. Three weeks after admission, the patient was discharged on dual antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel and aspirin) and oral anticoagulation therapy (acenocoumarol).

Four months after discharge, transthoracic echocardiography showed absence of left ventricular thrombus and resolution of the abnormal contractility in the area supplied by the revascularized right coronary artery. Given the high risk of bleeding, oral anticoagulation therapy was stopped.

Six months later, transthoracic echocardiography showed recurrent left ventricular apical thrombus, and an underlying hypercoagulable state was ruled out. Oral anticoagulation therapy was restarted on an indefinite basis, and dual antiplatelet therapy was continued.

Conclusion:
The present case illustrates the need for repeat transthoracic echocardiography following the withdrawal of oral anticoagulation therapy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, both to monitor thrombus status and to assess left ventricular segmental contraction.

In patients who require anticoagulation, avoidance of a drug-eluting stent is strongly preferred and second-generation stents are recommended. The alternative regimen of oral anticoagulation and clopidogrel may be considered in this scenario.

In patients with recurrent intraventricular thrombus an underlying hypercoagulable state should be ruled out.

Author: Juan LacalzadaBelén MaríMaría Manuela IzquierdoAlejandro Sánchez-GrandeAlejandro de la RosaIgnacio Laynez
Credits/Source: BMC Research Notes 2013, 6:348

Published on: 2013-09-02

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