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Associations between toe grip strength and hallux valgus, toe curl ability, and foot arch height in Japanese adults aged 20 to 79 years: a cross-sectional study



Daisuke Uritani1*, Takahiko Fukumoto1, Daisuke Matsumoto1 and Masayuki Shima2

  • *
    Corresponding author: Daisuke Uritani d.uritani@kio.ac.jp

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Science, Kio University, 4-2-2 Umaminaka, Koryocho, Nara 6350832, Kitakatsuragigun, Japan

2 Department of Public Health, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawacho, Nishinomiya 6638501, Hyogo, Japan

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Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 2015, 8:18 

Published: 2 May 2015

Abstract (provisional)

Background The associations between toe grip strength (TGS) and foot structure are
not well known, although foot structure is inferred to affect TGS. This study investigated
the associations between TGS and hallux valgus angle (HVA), toe curl ability, and
foot arch height (FAH). Methods This study analysed 227, 20 to 79-year-old, community-dwelling
participants. TGS, HVA formed by the first metatarsal bone and the proximal phalanx
of the hallux, toe curl ability (percentage) calculated as (foot length–flexed foot
length)/foot length, and FAH (percentage) calculated as navicular height/truncated
foot length were measured. To elucidate associations between TGS and foot structure,
a correlation analysis and stepwise multivariate linear regression analyses were performed,
based on the participant’s sex. Pearson’s correlation coefficients for TGS with age,
height, weight, HVA, toe curl ability, and FAH were also calculated. In the stepwise,
multivariate linear regression analyses, the independent variable was TGS and the
dependent variables were those that significantly correlated with TGS, as shown by
the Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The significance level was set at 5%. Results
According to the Pearson’s correlation coefficients, in men, TGS was significantly
correlated with age, height, toe curl ability, and FAH. According to the stepwise
multiple regression analysis, TGS correlated with age and toe curl ability (adjusted
R2=0.22). In women, TGS was significantly correlated with age, height, and toe curl
ability (adjusted R2=0.40). Conclusions TGS was associated with toe curl ability in
both men and women. However, TGS was not associated with HVA and FAH in men or women.
The results of this study may lead to the development of effective interventions to
improve TGS. However, factors other than structure of the foot require more detailed
investigation to clarify the factors contributing to TGS.